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9/11 - The Technical SideFeatures

Gathered here is a collection of articles about the architectural, engineering and related technical aspects of the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001 and the ensuing recovery.

If you know of related information that would that would be of special interest to the engineering and design community, please let us know by sending an email to editor@tenlinks.com.

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The winning plan for rebuilding the World Trade Center site, Memory Foundations by Studio Daniel Libeskind, leaves portions of the slurry wall exposed and its spiraling Freedom Tower rises to a height of 1,776 as a  symbol of the year of U.S. independence. Photo credit: AFP


Click on image to enlarge. Taken on September 23, 2001 from
an altitude of 3,300 feet.
Photo credit: NOAA

 

A Towering Project - Autodesk products - AutoCAD, Revit and Buzzsaw - are chief among the CAD tools being used to design the Freedom Tower, situated at the site of the former World Trade Center, Star Online, January 18, 2005

Ground Zero - Three Years Later - architects give their opinions on the World Trade Center design process and discuss future designs of the WTC site, Architectural Record, September 7, 2004

Freedom Tower Architects Test 3-D Drawing Software - Autodesk's Revit and Buzzsaw software are among the tools being used by the architects hired to complete Daniel Libeskind's design for the Freedom Tower, Alex Frangos, Wall Street Journal (hosted on MLive.com), July 7, 2004

World Trade Center Project Likely To Cost $350 Million - the 4.5-acre, multilevel World Trade Center Site Memorial will cost some $350 million, including $175 million for infrastructure, with groundbreaking set for September 11, Nadine M. Post, enr.com, January 26, 2004

World Trade Center - a wide variety of resources and links with a focus on architecture and design, Metropolis Magazine

Freedom Tower to Rise 1,776 Feet from Ashes - the final design submitted this week features a torqued tower whose east and west sides twist as they rise, echoing the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor, Phil Hirschkorn, CNN.com, December 19, 2003

A Design Rethought, With Judgment Deferred - Daniel Libeskind's newly unveiled and revised World Trade Center master plan looks like a rush job, Herbert Muschamp, New York Times, September 18, 2003 (may require free registration)

Urban Warriors - although Daniel Libeskind won the design competition to rebuild Ground Zero in Manhattan, he'll have to fight long and hard to get his original design built, Paul Goldberger, The New Yorker, September 15, 2003

Practical Issues for Ground Zero - the decision to choose Daniel Libeskind's design for the World Trade Center site revolved around a mixture of politics, economics and engineering, Edward Wyatt, New York Times, February 28, 2003 (may require free registration)

Winning WTC Plan is Taller than Twin Towers - a complex of angular buildings and a 1,776-foot spire designed by architect Daniel Libeskind was chosen as the plan for the World Trade Center site, CNN.com, February 27, 2003

Libeskind Design Chosen for Rebuilding at Ground Zero - the winning design for the World Trade Center site is from Berlin-based Studio Daniel Libeskind, whose plan centers on the excavated pit at the site, ringed by glass towers that swirl upward to a 1,776-foot spire, Edward Wyatt, New York Times, February 27, 2003 (may require free registration)

Designers' Dreams, Tempered by Reality - both finalists vying to design the World Trade Center site have had to extensively revise their architectural visions to accommodate real-world concerns, Herbert Muschamp, New York Times, February 26, 2003 (may require free registration)

A New Vision for Ground Zero Beyond Mainstream Modernism - Daniel Libeskind's design proposal for the World Trade Center site is not just the best among several competing schemes, it's in a class by itself, Marvin Trachtenberg, New York Times, February 23, 2003 (may require free registration)

2 Teams of Architects to Compete for Ground Zero Design - the competition to create the design for the World Trade Center site has been winnowed down to two teams of architects, Edward Wyatt, New York Times, February 4, 2003 (may require free registration)

Ground Zero Plan Expected Soon, Amid Conflicts - the organization responsible for selecting a new design plan and the agency that owns the 16-acre site have conflicting visions of rebuilding Ground Zero, Nadine M. Post, enr.construction.com, January 6, 2003

Architects Criticize Ground Zero Publicity - many architects fear that the attention and intensity given to the World Trade Center designs will greatly affect the project, Julie V. Iovine, New York Times, January 1, 2003 (may require free registration)

WTC Designs: Is Inspiration Enough? - whether any of the new designs to replace the World Trade Center ever become fully realized largely depends on support from public officials, James S. Russell, archrecord.construction.com, December 31, 2002

New World Trade Center Site Design Concepts - view slideshows of the new design proposals for the WTC site from seven international design firms, including Richard Meier and Foster and Partners, Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, December 20, 2002

Plans for Ground Zero Unveiled - seven teams of architects from around the world unveiled new designs for the World Trade Center site, ranging from quiet memorial gardens to what would be the tallest building in the world, Edward Wyatt, New York Times, December 19, 2002 (may require free registration)

Super Tower at WTC Site? - several new plans for Ground Zero call for erecting what would be the tallest building in the world, Maggie Haberman and Greg Gittrich, New York Daily News, December 10, 2002

Planners Briefed on WTC Redevelopment - the six teams chosen to develop plans for the World Trade Center site were briefed on new design guidelines that resulted from public dissatisfaction with earlier planning schemes, Nadine M. Post, enr.construction.com, October 11, 2002

The Height of Ambition - this history of the World Trade Center towers reveals that some of the engineering and architectural innovations that made these tall structures possible may have led to their demise, James Glanz and Eric Lipton, New York Times, September 8, 2002

Security a Higher Priority for Architects - a survey found that  55 percent of AIA architects say their clients have made building security a higher priority since 9/11, John E. Czarnecki, archrecord.construction.com, September 10, 2002

9/11 Prompts New Caution in Skyscraper Design - developers, engineers and architects are rethinking how to fortify tall buildings, Eric Lipton and James Glanz, New York Times, September 9, 2002

What Goes Above Ground Zero Has Only 5 Planning Options - an international consortium of architects, academicians, and students explore the design strategies, Alfredo Andia, Architecture Week, July 10, 2002

Emergency Planning: Getting Them Out Safely - in the wake of 9/11, sales are surging for Scottish company's software, Tom Sawyer, enr.construction.com, July 22, 2002

Stronger, Smarter Buildings in Less Time - architects are using advanced technology to model their designs in ever-greater detail, Business Week, July 16, 2002

A New Design Concept for the World Trade Center - a design proposal by Derek G. Turner that involves 5 cylindrical towers and a maximum height of 1,750 ft (the original WTC was 1,320 ft). Beautifully done site.

What is an Event and What is its Duration? - assessing the cultural and architectural aftermath of September 11th, Peter Wheelwright, in the Cause of Architecture, April 1, 2002

ASCE Establishes Teams to Study NY and DC Disasters - American Society of Civil Engineers, March 6, 2002

New York New Visions - coalition of 20 architecture, planning, and design organizations makes recommendations on the issues surrounding the rebuilding of Lower Manhattan, Jan 2002

Rebuilding Ground Zero - interview with prominent architects involved with the rebuilding of lower Manhattan, Online NewsHour, Nov 12, 2001

Rapid Evacuation Concepts Aired - Prince Charles speaks for the continuation of tall buildings at skyscraper conference in London, Nadine M. Post and Peter Reina, enr.com, Dec 13, 2001

New York Considers - a status report on the site of the World Trade Center, Tess Taylor, Architecture Week, Nov 14, 2001

Architects Seek Security Guidance - 90% of architects on webcast say security needs should be assessed early, Tom Sawyer, enr.com, Nov 7, 2001

Competing Plans Hope to Shape a Trade Center Memorial - New York Times, Oct 25, 2001 (may require registration)

The World Trade Center: 1973-2001 - beautiful pictorial on the towers through the years (10 slides), including a picture of a tightrope walk from one tower to the other, newyorkmetro.com, Sep 2001

Site plan of the WTC - greatbuildings.com, September 2001

Designers Look Beyond Debris - a near-capacity crowd of 700 designers and architects fill the Great Hall at Cooper Union with hopes and dreams, Julie V. Iovine, New York Times, Sep 27, 2001

Architects, Planners and Residents Wonder How to Fill the Hole in the City  - Kirk Johnson, Charles V. Bagli, New York Times, Sep 26, 2001

Architects Don't Foresee Skyscraper's Demise - architects remain attached to the very idea of tall buildings, Thurston Hatcher, CNN, Sep 26, 2001

Building Plans - an homage to the World Trade Center and what it meant to architecture and New York during its existence, Paul Goldberger, The New Yorker, Sep 24, 2001

High-rise Anxiety - the Trade Center attack is unlikely to stop the design and building of more skyscrapers -- although maybe with bunkers, Dan Levy, SF Gate, Sep 14, 2001

Trade Center Architect Discusses Buildings - Aaron Swirsky, part of the architectural team led by World Trade Center chief architect Minoru Yamasaki, talks about the way the buildings were designed, CNN, Sep 12, 2001

Buildings That Stood Tall as Symbols of Strength - origins of WTC and the Pentagon, Benjamin Forgey, Washington Post, September 13, 2001

AISC Task Force to Investigate World Trade Center Collapse - press release from AISC, Sep 12, 2001

The World Trade Center - fact sheet from skyscraper.com

The World Trade Center - fact sheet from greatbuildings.com

The Pentagon - fact sheet from greatbuildings.com

AIA Media Sources - press contacts offered by American Institute of Architects

 

World Trade Center Investigation "Exonerates" Twin Towers' Design in Sept. 11, 2001 Collapse - a recent interim report says that the structural steel of the twin towers of the World Trade Center was stripped of its fireproofing by debris from the aircraft impact and weakened by the resulting fires, eventually causing the towers to collapse, Nadine M. Post, enr.com, October 21, 2004

Columns Likely Failed First in Terrorist-Triggered WTC Fires - the lead investigator of the Federal Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center’s destruction concluded that the columns, weakened by fires ignited by jet fuel, failed and triggered the collapse of the twin 110-story towers, Nadine M. Post, enr.construction.com, June 28, 2004

Modeling Libeskind's WTC - a look at the computer modeling tools - which included form*Z and VectorWorks - used in designing the World Trade Center project, Jerry Fireman, Architecture Week, March 4, 2004

Research May Never Pinpoint Sequence of Events on 9/11 - although investigators say their $16-million study may never determine the exact sequence of events that led to the WTC collapse, the most likely scenario is that columns of the twin 110-story towers bulged out and yielded first, as a result of floor trusses heating up and expanding in length, Nadine M. Post, enr.com, January 19, 2004

Trade Center Probe Clears Data Hurdles - investigators have finished building comprehensive models for analyzing the most probable collapse scenarios, and have conducted most of the analysis of the laboratory fire tests on mockups of typical WTC workstations to provide data for fire dynamics computer models, Nadine M. Post, enr.com, December 15, 2003

9/11's Hard Lessons Lead Agency to Urge Tougher Building Code - in light of  9/11, the New York City Buildings Department is calling for office towers to have larger and more numerous stairwells, full sprinkler systems and better-protected ductwork, David W. Dunlap, New York Times, February 15, 2003 (may require free registration)

Twin Tower Collapse Theory Challenged - a fire-safety expert believes that had the fire-proofing insulation on the towers' steel structures been thicker, the buildings might have survived longer and perhaps would not have collapsed at all, Duncan Graham-Rowe, New Scientist, February 3, 2003

A Post-Sept. 11 Laboratory in High-Rise Safety - designers of the new 7 World Trade Center are going beyond local building codes to ensure the safety of the building's occupants, David W. Dunlap, New York Times, January 29, 2003 (may require free registration)

NIST Not Ruling Anything Out on WTC Probe - the National Institute of Standards and Technology, just three months into a two-year study, says it's too early to rule out any possible scenarios that caused the World Trade Center towers to fall, Tom Ichniowskia, enr.com, December 9, 2002

In Data Trove, a Graphic Look at Towers' Fall - computer simulation is helping engineers understand how and why the WTC towers collapsed, James Glanz and Eric Lipton, New York Times, October 29, 2002 (may require free registration)

Report Ties WTC Collapses to Column Failures - a recent engineering report, based in part on computer modeling, says that the twin towers fell not because of faulty floor trusses but because of the failure of the columns, Nadine M. Post, enr.construction.com, October 25, 2002

Comparing 2 Sets of Twin Towers - one of the world's most renowned engineers believes that the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, would have withstood the 9/11 attacks better than the WTC towers and provide keys to building future skyscrapers, James Glanz, New York Times, October 23, 2002 (may require free registration)

September 11th Testimony - MSC.Software Corp provided simulation software tools to a congressional committee to simulate and understand the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings, CADuser, June 2002

Ground Zero Rush Response Followed By Site's Painstaking Cost Recovery - a year after the WTC disaster, New York City officials are still sorting through the paper trail from the $500-million Ground Zero cleanup job, Debra K. Rubin, enr.com, September 9, 2002

New Standard for Tall 'Targets'? - engineers who studied the World Trade Center disaster emphasize that the big question raised by Sept. 11 is whether a separate design standard should be applied to supertall buildings because of their "target" potential and long evacuation times, Nadine M. Post, enr.construction.com,  May 13, 2002

NIST Could Take Over Disaster Investigations - Nadine M. Post, Sherie Winston, May 6, 2002

Word Trade Center Building Performance Study - data collections, preliminary observations and recommendations, House Committee on Science, April 30, 2002

Why the Towers Fell - through interviews and videos, forensic engineers present their conclusions of how and why the towers collapsed, NOVA Online, April, 2002

Testimony of Dr. W. Gene Corley - Sr. VP, CTL Engineering, Chicago, IL on behalf of the American Society of Civil Engineers, before the Subcommittee on Environment, Technology and Standards & Subcommittee on Research Committee on Science U.S. House of Representatives, ASCE, May 1, 2002

Collapse of the Towers - testimony of Dr. Abolhassan Astaneh-Asl, professor Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of California, Berkeley before the Committee on Science of the U.S. House of Representatives, April, 2002

No Reasonable Precautions Could Have Prevented Collapses - from an unpublished report by ASE and FEMA, Nadine Post, enr.com, April 8, 2002

WTC's 'Bathtub' Stabilization More Than 70% Complete - Nadine Post, enr.com, April 1, 2002

The Lessons of The Towering Inferno - a New York firefighter makes a case against lightweight skyscraper design, Lieutenant Gregory Gargiso, in the Cause of Architecture, April 1, 2002

$40 Million Needed to Study Performance of WTC Buildings - Nadine M. Post with Sherie Winston, enr.com, March 18, 2002

ASHRAE Issues Guidance on Keeping Buildings Safe -FM Link, Feb 27, 2002

First Tower to Fall Was Hit at Higher Speed, Study Finds - Eric Lipton, James Glanz, New York Times, Feb 23, 2002 (may require free registration)

Forensic Expert Studying WTC Steel - Deborah Snoonian, Architectural Record, January 10, 2002

Pentagon Gets Back to Business - Victoria L. Tanner, January, construction.com, January 8, 2001

Industry Summit: Design and Construction - after the disaster, summit invokes the three R's of threat design– resist, respond, recover, enr.com, Nadine M. Post, Dec 27, 2001

WTC Cleanup Management Shifts as Debris Disappears - as visible signs of the World Trade Center devastation fast disappear, cleanup officials confirm plans for project management changes that will better conform to the site's changing profile, Debra Rubin, enr.com, Dec 24, 2001

Bechtel May Snag PM Role at WTC Site - Judy Schreiner, construction.com, Nov 14, 2001

A Strong Door for Tough Times - off-the-shelf materials and a beefed-up latch can help secure flight decks, Joseph Ogando, Design News, Nov 5, 2001 (may require free registration)

Protective 'Bubble' Plan to Shield Terror Targets - Honeywell developing technology to prevent aircraft from flying directly into buildings, the Engineer, Nov 1, 2001

Raytheon Awarded $9.5 Million to Create a Modeling and Simulation Capability To Support National Airspace System Analyses - press release, Nov 1, 2001

Industry Experts Tackle Task of Protecting Infrastructure - Judy Schriener, construction.com, Nov 1, 2001

Berkeley Professor Seeks the Safer Skyscraper - concrete steel sheer wall could have helped the WTC towers stay up, San Francisco Chronicle, Oct 22, 2001

Collapse of the World Trade Center Towers - the airplanes crashing into the World Trade Center towers caused considerable structural damage that played a much greater role in their collapse than the resulting fire, argues G. Charles Clifton, CADdigest.com, September 17, 2001

Engineering Forensics of Collapse - research groups sift through the rubble to find clues to help explain the collapse and the NSF kicks in $300,000 in grants to help the forensic investigation, Michael J. Crosbie, Architecture Week, Oct 17, 2001

Pentagon Shifts Into Higher Gear - W. Lee Evey, the "go-to" guy in the Pentagon's massive long term renovation, experienced a massive change of plans after learned of the terrorist attack from a waitress in Tennessee, Victoria L Tanner, Design Build, Oct 1, 2001

Computerized Facilities Management in Disaster Recovery - how CAFM tools helped a return to business after September 11, Jerry Laiserin, FAIA, AEC Vision, Oct 3, 2001 (pdf)

Engineering Against Disaster - a tower can theoretically be made that can survive an airplane crash, but would it be practical, abcnews.com, Sep 28, 2001

Tower's Collapse Threatens to Flood Foundation - animation shows risk from a potentially unstable retaining wall at the base of the towers referred to by engineers as the "bathtub," USA Today, Sep 2001

Hardening Buildings Against Attack - animation presents what is being considered, including cement barriers, thicker walls and better fire-fighting systems, USA Today, Sep 2001

Fighting Fires in the Sky - high rises use the dry stand pipe system for getting water to where their hoses cannot reach, USA Today, Sep 2001

World Trade Center - New York - Some Engineering Aspects - compendium of information gleaned from the web plus insights from the University of Sydney's Department of Civil Engineering

Damage Report from the City of New York - 3D map of affected area of Manhattan, showing destroyed and damaged buildings, CNN.com, Sep 24, 2001

Collapsing Towers Caused Seismic Shock - impact of towers causes a magnitude 2.4 earthquake in Manhattan, David Whitehouse, BBC, Sep 20, 2001

Engineers Shocked by Towers' Collapse - engineers who built the towers planned for impact but not the fire, Chicago Tribune, Sep 11, 2001

World Trade Center Coverage - past and current WTC news, Architectural Record

Defending Skyscrapers Against Terror - what would it take? How about a high capacity anti-fire system that dispenses water and foam, such as those used in aircraft hangars? Dennis Overbye, New York Times Science, Sep 20, 2001 (new users may have to register)

Engineers Tackle Havoc Beneath Trade Center - below the towers is a 70 foot deep basement where the subway tunnels have collapsed, water has poured in from fire hoses and the Hudson River is so very close, Kenneth Chang, New York Times Science, Sep 20, 2001 (new users may have to register)

Anatomy of a Collapse - animated slide show offers explanation of the mechanics of the failure, US News and World Report, Sep 2001

Todd Rittenhouse: Why the World Trade Center Collapsed - expert in blast engineering offers analysis, CNN, Sep 13, 2001

Council On Tall Buildings Explains Heat, Not Structure, Caused WTC Fall - CADdigest.com, September 21, 2001

Why the Towers Collapsed - engineers who watch the disaster offer insight. Also, this is not the first time a plane has crashed into a NY skyscraper (see 1945 Plane Crash Rocked NYC), Bill Wyman, Salon.com, Sep 11, 2001

How the World Trade Center Fell - the anatomy of the tower and the science of the collapse, BBC News, Sep 13, 2001

Final Collapse - the Twin Towers survived hurricane gusts and a bomb explosion but two direct hits with airplanes proved to be their downfall, Amanda Onion, abcnews.com, Sep 12, 2001

ASCE Establishes Forensic Teams to Investigate NY and DC Disasters - press release from American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE.com, Sep 12, 2001

Industry Rallies To Cleanup WTC Aftermath - special report by David S. Chartock, New York Construction News, Sep 12, 2001

Protecting a symbol of Strength, Retrofitting the Pentagon for Blast Resistance - prophetic article by Michael N. Biscotte, PE and Keith A. Amoney, STRUCTURE, July/August 2001 (pdf file)

Structural Engineers on World Trade Center Collapse - September 11, 2001

 

GIS Articles and Data Links on Attacks - comprehensive list, GIS Monitor

Afghanistan Maps and Data Products - list of data sites for Afghanistan and the Middle East compiled by Glenn Letham, Sep 28, 2001

GIS Companies Offer Assistance - what major GIS companies are doing to help in the rebuilding effort, Adena Schutzberg, Sep 2001

GIS/Geography Community Loses Four in Attacks - UNH Emeritus Geography Professor, National Geographic Staff members, GIS business partner on hijacked aircraft, Adena Schutzberg with contributions from Matt Artz (ESRI - Redlands) and Paul Hartwell (ESRI-DC)

Could E911 Have Helped in Disaster? - enhanced 911 would pinpoint a victims who are calling for help, such as those trapped in the rubble of NYC's Twin Towers, Ben Charny, CNET News.com, Sep 12, 2001

Computer Graphics: Helping to Cope with Terrorism - Ben Delaney, Computer Graphics Applications, March/April, 2002

Security Beyond Your Borders - companies are making IT systems safe from terrorists, but what they don't know about partners' vulnerabilities may hurt them, Alorie Gilbert, InformationWeek, Nov. 5, 2001

Tech Sector, Already Weak, Disrupted by Attacks - Reuters, Sep 20, 2001

Web Becomes Global Support Forum - AP, Sep 12, 2001

ISPs Turn Possible Terrorist Communications Over To Feds - BizReport, Sep 13, 2001

Tech Companies in the WTC Towers - internet.com, Sep 13, 2001

ISPs Aid FBI in Terrorist Search - Robert Lemos, CNET News, Sep 13, 2001

Simulation Software vs. the Terrorists - simulation and modeling software companies such as Autodesk and Silicon Graphics will likely play an increasingly important role in homeland security, Business Week Online, May 26, 2004

Teaching 9-11- offers hundreds of useful links for teachers, including resources, sample lesson plans, syllabi and modules, The Clarke Center, Dickinson College

From the Torch to the Toes, Digital Insurance - a "digital map" of the Statue of Liberty - created by the Cyrax 2500 scanner - could be used to recreate the statue in the event of a terrorist attack, Fred A. Bernstein, New York Times, September 11, 2003 (may require free registration)

Clearing a Vertical Path to Safety - in the wake of 9/11, experts are debating evacuation standards for high-rise buildings, Matthew Phair, Building Design and Construction, September 2002

The Mathematics of Vengeance - editor calculates how long it took bodies to hit the ground from the upper floors of the world trade center (Shouldn't someone take away this man's calculator?), Machine Design, Nov 22, 2001

Water Infrastructure Under Review at Water Security Summit 2001 - focuses on threats to the nation's water systems, event will take place December 3-4 in Hartford, Connecticut, organized by Haestad Methods

1945 Plane Crash Rocked NYC - a US bomber flying low through fog crashed into the Empire State Building, but the building held, ABCNEWS.com, Sep 11, 2001

Witness and Response: September 11 Acquisitions at the Library of Congress - online exhibition presents a collection of responses to 9/11, including audio interviews and such visual ephemera as posters, billboards and drawings by young people, The Library of Congress, December 29, 2003

One Year After - a look at how one architecture and design firm, based in the World Trade Center, managed to survive the 9/11 terrorist attack, Ken Shulman, Metropolis, October 2002

A Second Chance - Frank Lombardi, chief engineer of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, whose office was in the World Trade Center, describes how he survived the 9/11 terrorist attacks, Donna Condida, Progressive Engineer, October 2002

The Healing Hand - engineers are making unique contributions behind the headlines of the World Trade Center disaster, Mechanical Engineering, November 2001

Early Days of the Disaster - a structural engineers personal account from the disaster site, Patrick J. McNierney, Architecture Week, November 7, 2001

The Tower Builder - Leslie Robertson, one of the chief structural engineers behind the world trade center, cries when he thinks how he might have made the World Trade Center just a little bit stronger. Moving and informative. John Seabrook, New Yorker, November 12, 2001

High-Tech Industry Mourns Crash Victims - David Lammers And Jerry Ascierto, EE Times, September 17, 2001

Minoru Yamasaki, World-Class Architect - the life of the chief architect of the World Trade Center, Vivian M. Baulch, The Detroit News

Daniel Lewin, Co-Founder of Akamai Technology Corporation, Dies in Attack - Seth Schiesel, New York Times, September 12, 2001 (may require free registration)

Of Towers and Smoky Rooms - Robert Ivy, Architectural Record, November 8, 2001

The Day of, Weeks After - Deborah Snoonian, Architectural Record, October 30, 2001

The Tragedy from Abroad - Charles Linn, Architectural Record, September 27, 2001

The Morning After - Robert Ivy, Architectural Record, September 26, 2001

Evacuating Manhattan - Rita Catinella, Architectural Record, September 25, 2001

Surreal in Stockholm - William Weathersby, Jr., Architectural Record, September 24, 2001

A Friend's Scar - Clifford A. Pearson, Architectural Record, September 19, 2001

Terror in the Sky - an eye-witness account, Robert Ivy, Architecture Record, September 12, 2001

From 5,000 Feet Up, Mapping Terrain for Ground Zero Workers - images from infrared pulses, Kenneth Chang, New York Times, Sep 23, 2001

Pentagon - airphoto overlaid upon USGS topo map, 3DNature.com

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